Annual Report 2016

Management’s Discussion and Analysis

Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

BMO’s Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer have signed a statement outlining management’s responsibility for financial information (PDF, 83 KB) in the annual consolidated financial statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A). The statement also explains the roles of the Audit and Conduct Review Committee and Board of Directors in respect of that financial information.

The MD&A comments on BMO’s operations and financial condition for the years ended October 31, 2016 and 2015. The MD&A should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements for the year ended October 31, 2016. The MD&A commentary is as of December 6, 2016. Unless otherwise indicated, all amounts are stated in Canadian dollars and have been derived from financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. References to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) mean IFRS.

Since November 1, 2011, BMO’s financial results have been reported in accordance with IFRS. Results for years prior to 2011 have not been restated and are presented in accordance with Canadian GAAP as defined at that time (CGAAP). As such, certain growth rates and compound annual growth rates (CAGR) may not be meaningful. On November 1, 2013, BMO adopted several new and amended accounting pronouncements issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. The consolidated financial statements for comparative periods in the fiscal years 2013 and 2012 have been restated. Certain other prior year data has been reclassified to conform with the current year’s presentation. The adoption of new IFRS standards in 2015 only impacted our results prospectively. Prior periods have been reclassified for methodology changes and transfers of certain businesses between operating groups. See pages 45 and 46 of the 2016 Operating Groups Performance Review (PDF, 188 KB).

Regulatory Filings

Our continuous disclosure materials, including our interim financial statements and interim MD&A, annual audited consolidated financial statements and annual MD&A, Annual Information Form and Notice of Annual Meeting of Shareholders and Management Proxy Circular, are available on our website at, on the Canadian Securities Administrators’ website at and on the EDGAR section of the SEC’s website at BMO’s Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer certify the appropriateness and fairness of BMO’s annual and interim consolidated financial statements, MD&A and Annual Information Form, the effectiveness of BMO’s disclosure controls and procedures and the effectiveness of, and any material weaknesses relating to, BMO’s internal control over financial reporting.

Factors That May Affect Future Results

As noted in the following Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements, all forward-looking statements and information, by their nature, are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties, both general and specific, which may cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations expressed in any forward-looking statement. The Enterprise-Wide Risk Management section starting on page 79 describes a number of risks, including credit and counterparty, market, liquidity and funding, operational, model, insurance, legal and regulatory, business, strategic, environmental and social, and reputation risk. Should our risk management framework prove ineffective, there could be a material adverse impact on our financial position.

Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Bank of Montreal’s public communications often include written or oral forward-looking statements. Statements of this type are included in this document, and may be included in other filings with Canadian securities regulators or the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or in other communications. All such statements are made pursuant to the “safe harbor” provisions of, and are intended to be forward-looking statements under, the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and any applicable Canadian securities legislation. Forward-looking statements may involve, but are not limited to, comments with respect to our objectives and priorities for fiscal 2017 and beyond, our strategies or future actions, our targets, expectations for our financial condition or share price, and the results of or outlook for our operations or for the Canadian, U.S. and international economies.

By their nature, forward-looking statements require us to make assumptions and are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties. There is significant risk that predictions, forecasts, conclusions or projections will not prove to be accurate, that our assumptions may not be correct, and that actual results may differ materially from such predictions, forecasts, conclusions or projections. We caution readers of this document not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements, as a number of factors could cause actual future results, conditions, actions or events to differ materially from the targets, expectations, estimates or intentions expressed in the forward-looking statements.

The future outcomes that relate to forward-looking statements may be influenced by many factors, including but not limited to: general economic and market conditions in the countries in which we operate; weak, volatile or illiquid capital and/or credit markets; interest rate and currency value fluctuations; changes in monetary, fiscal, tax or economic policy; the level of competition in the geographic and business areas in which we operate; changes in laws or in supervisory expectations or requirements, including capital, interest rate and liquidity requirements and guidance; judicial or regulatory proceedings; the accuracy and completeness of the information we obtain with respect to our customers and counterparties; our ability to execute our strategic plans and to complete and integrate acquisitions, including obtaining regulatory approvals; critical accounting estimates and the effect of changes to accounting standards, rules and interpretations on these estimates; operational and infrastructure risks; changes to our credit ratings; political conditions, including changes relating to or affecting economic or trade matters; global capital markets activities; the possible effects on our business of war or terrorist activities; outbreaks of disease or illness that affect local, national or international economies; natural disasters and disruptions to public infrastructure, such as transportation, communications, power or water supply; technological changes; information and cyber security; and our ability to anticipate and effectively manage risks arising from all of the foregoing factors.

We caution that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all possible factors. Other factors and risks could adversely affect our results. For more information, please see the discussion in the Risks That May Affect Future Results section on page 80, and the sections related to credit and counterparty, market, liquidity and funding, operational, model, insurance, legal and regulatory, business, strategic, environmental and social, and reputation risk, which begin on page 88 and outline certain key factors and risks that may affect Bank of Montreal’s future results. Investors and others should carefully consider these factors and risks, as well as other uncertainties and potential events, and the inherent uncertainty of forward-looking statements. Bank of Montreal does not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by the organization or on its behalf, except as required by law. The forward-looking information contained in this document is presented for the purpose of assisting our shareholders in understanding our financial position as at and for the periods ended on the dates presented, as well as our strategic priorities and objectives, and may not be appropriate for other purposes.

Assumptions about the performance of the Canadian and U.S. economies, as well as overall market conditions and their combined effect on our business, are material factors we consider when determining our strategic priorities, objectives and expectations for our business. In determining our expectations for economic growth, both broadly and in the financial services sector, we primarily consider historical economic data provided by the Canadian and U.S. governments and their agencies. See the Economic Developments and Outlook (PDF, 58 KB) section of this document.


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